Utvecklingspsykologi

Valbar forskarutbildningskurs i ämnesteori, 7,5 hp

Kursplanen nedan i PDF

Kursplan

Mål

Efter genomgången kurs skall studenten:

  • Kunna redogöra för centrala teoretiska koncept inom ämnet.
  • Kunna diskutera dessa koncept i relation till psykologisk utveckling under de första levnadsåren.

Innehåll

Utvecklingspsykologi avser i detta fall primärt spädbarn och barns kognitiva och sociala utveckling. Kursen kommer att avhandla följande ämnen.

  • Embodied cognition
  • Fysiologi och social utveckling
  • Core cognition och statistisk inlärning
  • Self-Regulation; development, influential factors, and relations to behavioral problems
  • Teorier kring tidig utveckling vid autism

Undervisning

Undervisning ges i form av studentledda seminarier med efterföljande diskussion. Undervisningen kan komma att ges på engelska.

Varje delmoment avhandlas vid ett seminarium där två deltagande studenter presenterar teorierna som avhandlas samt leder en efterföljande kritisk diskussion kring ämnet. Samtliga studenter förväntas delta aktivt i diskussionen.

Examination

Kursen kommer att examineras via följande aktiviteter:

  • Aktivt deltagande i diskussioner.
  • En 2-sidig summering av varje ämne som också inkluderar två diskussionsfrågor. Lämnas in innan varje seminarium.
  • En uppsats (4-6 sidor) som diskuterar ett nytt ämne i ljuset av de teorier som tagits upp i kursen.

Vid examination används betygsgraderna godkänd och underkänd.

Litteratur

(530 sidor + 9 videoklipp)

Embodied cognition

Delmomentet avhandlar olika teorier som betonar betydelsen av eget aktivt utforskande, och egna erfarenheter tidigt i livet, för kognitiv utveckling.

Teorier om embodied cognition

  • van Geert, P. (2017). Constructivist theories. In B. Hopkins, E. Geangu, & S. Linkenauger (Eds.) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of  Child Development. Cambridge University Press, 19-34.
  • Schutte, A. R., & Degirolamo, G. J. (2017) Dynamic systems approaches. In B. Hopkins, E. Geangu, & S. Linkenauger (Eds.) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Child Development. Cambridge University Press, 60-70.
  • Newcombe, N. S. (2011). What Is Neoconstructivism? Child Development Perspectives, 5(3), 157-160.
  • Westermann, G., Mareschal, D., Johnson, M. H., Sirois, S., Spratling, M. W., & Thomas, M. S. C. (2007). Neuroconstructivism. Developmental Science, 10(1), 75-83.

Betydelsen av rörelseförmåga för kognitiv utveckling

  • Campos, J. J., Anderson, D. I., Barbu-Roth, M. A., Hubbard, E. M., Hertenstein, M. J., & Witherington, D. (2000). Travel Broadens the Mind. Infancy, 1(2), 149-219.
  • Adolph, K. E., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. S. (2014). The Costs and Benefits of Development: The Transition From Crawling to Walking. Child Development Perspectives, 8(4), 187-192.

Betydelsen av gripförmåga och manipulation av objekt för kognitiv utveckling

  • von Hofsten, C. (2004). An action perspective on motor development. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(6), 266-272.
  • Gredebäck, G., & Falck-Ytter, T. (2015). Eye Movements During Action Observation. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(5), 591-598.
  • Gottwald, J. M., Achermann, S., Marciszko, C., Lindskog, M., & Gredeback, G. (2016). An Embodied Account of Early Executive-Function Development. Psychol Sci, 27(12), 1600-1610.
  • Libertus, K., Joh, A. S., & Needham, A. W. (2016). Motor training at 3 months affects object exploration 12 months later. Developmental Science, 19(6), 1058-1066.
  • Lindskog, M., Schröder E., Kenward, B., & Gredebäck, G. (under review). Development of infants’ numerical abiliites: The active exploration hypothesis.

Filmer

Fysiologi och social utveckling.

Fysiologiska faktorer, och i synnerhet fysiologisk synkronisering, ligger bakom kritiska aspekter av social utveckling. Exempel i kursen är: nyfödda barn med sina mödrar, äldre spädbarns stressreaktioner och utvecklingen av empati och prosocialt beteende.

Nyfödda barn med sina mödrar

  • Van Puyvelde, M., Loots, G., Meys, J., Neyt, X., Mairesse, O., Simcock, D., & Pattyn, N. (2015). Whose clock makes yours tick? How maternal cardiorespiratory physiology influences newborns’ heart rate variability. Biological Psychology, 108, 132–141. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2015.04.001
  • Mooncey, S., Giannakoulopoulos, X., Glover, V., Acolet, D., & Modi, N. (1997). The effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on plasma cortisol and β-endorphin concentrations in preterm newborns. Infant Behavior and Development, 20(4), 553–557. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-6383(97)90045-X

Äldre spädbarns stressreaktioner

  • Feldman, R., Singer, M., & Zagoory, O. (2010). Touch attenuates infants’ physiological reactivity to stress. Developmental Science, 13(2), 271–278. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7687.2009.00890.x
  • Waters, S. F., West, T. V, & Berry Mendes, W. (2014). Stress contagion: Physiological covariation between mothers and infants. Psychological Science, 25(4), 934–942.
  • Fawcett, C., Arslan, M., Falck-Ytter, T., Roeyers, H., & Gredebäck, G. (2017). Human eyes with dilated pupils induce pupillary contagion in infants. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 9601. http://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-08223-3

Empati och prosocialt beteende

  • Hepach, R., Vaish, A., Müller, K., & Tomasello, M. (2017). The relation between young children’s physiological arousal and their motivation to help others. Neuropsychologia, (October), 0–1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.10.010
  • Gill, K. L., & Calkins, S. D. (2003). Do aggressive/destructive toddlers lack concern for others? Behavioral and physiological indicators of empathic responding in 2-year-old children. Development and Psychopathology, 15(1), 55–71. http://doi.org/10.1017/S095457940300004X
  • Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, X., & Warden, D. (2008). Physiologically-indexed and self-perceived affective empathy in conduct-disordered children high and low on callous-unemotional traits. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 39(4), 503–517. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-008-0104-y

Filmer

Core cognition och statistisk inlärning.

Delmomentet avhandlar psykologiska teorier kring kognitiv utveckling som i) fokuserar på en uppsättning medfödda domänspecifika kognitiva mekanismer (core cognitive systems) och ii) fokuserar på domängenerella kognitiva mekanismer som extraherar statistiska regelbundenheter i miljön.

Core cognition

  • Carey, S. (2009). Conclusion I: The origin of concepts. In The origin of concepts (pp. 447-486).
  • Spelke, E. S. (2000). Core knowledge. The American Psychologist, 55, 1233–1243.
  • Feigenson, L., Dehaene, S., & Spelke, E. S. (2004). Core systems of number. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 307–314.
  • Bloom, P., & Wynn, K. (2016). What develops in moral development. In D. Barner & A. S. Baron (Eds.) Core knowledge and conceptual change, (pp. 347-364). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Gärdenfors, P. (2018). From Sensations to Concepts: a Proposal for Two Learning Processes. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 1-24.
  • Two part lecture by Liz Spelke on cognitive development in general and core cognition in particular:
    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qxUKIwqbhBs
    2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IlXiXe2NWn0&t=22s

Learning from Statistical regularities

  • Cohen, L. B. (2009). A bottom-up approach to infant perception and cognition: A summary of evidence and discussion of issues. In S. P. Johnson (Eds.)  Neoconstructivism: The new science of cognitive development, (pp. 335-346). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Saffran, J. R. (2009). What is statistical learning, and what statistical learning is not. In S. P. Johnson (Eds.)  Neoconstructivism: The new science of cognitive development, (pp. 180-194). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Kirkham, N. Z., Slemmer, J. A., & Johnson, S. P. (2002). Visual statistical learning in infancy: evidence for a domain general learning mechanism. Cognition, 83, B35–B42.

The statistical approach extended; how children can learn so much from so little

  • Tenenbaum, J. B., Kemp, C., Griffiths, T. L., & Goodman, N. D. (2011). How to grow a mind: Statistics, structure, and abstraction. Science, 331, 1279–1285.
  • Xu, F., & Kushnir, T. (2013). Infants Are Rational Constructivist Learners. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 28–32.
  • Liu, S., Ullman, T. D., Tenenbaum, J. B., & Spelke, E. S. (2017). Ten-month-old infants infer the value of goals from the costs of actions. Science, 358, 1038–1041.
  • Stahl, A. E., & Feigenson, L. (2015). Cognitive development. Observing the unexpected enhances infants' learning and exploration. Science, 348, 91–94.
  • Laura Schulz on how babies can learn so much from so little: https://www.ted.com/talks/laura_schulz_the_surprisingly_logical_minds_of_babies#t-689643

Self-Regulation; development, influential factors, and relations to behavioral problems

Seminariet fokuserar på psykologiska processer relaterade till självreglering, utvecklingen av självreglering, föräldrars påverkan av dessa processer samt utvecklingspsykopatologi i relation till självreglering.

  • Nigg, T (2017). Annual Research Review: On the relations among self-regulation, self-control, executive functioning, effortful control, cognitive control, impulsivity, risk-taking, and inhibition for developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 58 (4), 361-383.
  • Moffitt, T. E. et al., (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. PNAS, 108 (7), 2693-2698.

Self-Regulation: Development

  • Garon, N., & Bryson, S. E. (2008). Executive Functions in Preschoolers: A Review Using an Integrative Framework. Psychological Bulletin. 134 (1), 31-60.
  • Johansson, M., Marciszko, C., Brocki, K., & Bohlin, G. (2015). Individual Differences in Early Executive Functions: A longitudinal Study from 12 to 36 Months. Infant and Child Development. 25 (6), 533-549.
  • Frick, M., Forslund, T., Bohlin, G. & Brocki, K.C. (2017). The role of sustained attention, maternal sensitivity, and infant temperament in the development of early self-regulation. British Journal of Psychology, doi: 10.1111/bjop.12266. [Epub ahead of print]

Self-Regulation: Influential factors on individual differences

  • Bernier, A., Beauchamp, M.H., Carlson, S., & Lalonde, G. (2015). A secure base from which to regulate: Attachment security in toddlerhood as a predictor of executive functioning at school entry. Developmental Psychology, 51 (9), 1177-1189.
  • Rochette, E., & Bernier, A. (2016) Parenting and preschoolers’ executive functioning: A case of differential susceptibility? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 40 (2), 151-161.
  • Ursache, A., et al. (2013) Emotional reactivity and regulation in Infancy interact to predict executive functioning in early childhood. Developmental Psychology, 49 (1), 127-137.

Self-Regulation: Links to behavioral problems

  • Brocki, K.C., Forslund, T., Frick, M., & Bohlin, G. (2017). Do individual differences in early affective and cognitive self-regulation predict developmental change in ADHD symptoms from preschool to adolescence? Journal of attention disorders. doi: 10.1177/1087054717693372. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Sulik, M. J., et al. (2015). Early parenting and the development of externalizing behavior problems: Longitudinal mediation through children’s executive functioning. Child Development, 86 (5), 1588-1603.

Teorier kring tidig utveckling vid autism

General introduction and background

The social first hypothesis and alternative views

  • Elsabbagh, M. & Johnson, M. H. Autism and the social brain: the first year puzzle. Biological Psychiatry (2016).
  • Keehn, B., Mueller, R.-A. & Townsend, J. Atypical attentional networks and the emergence of autism. Neuroscience And Biobehavioral Reviews 37, 164-183.
  • Chevallier, C., Kohls, G., Troiani, V., Brodkin, E. S. & Schultz, R. T. The social motivation theory of autism. Trends In Cognitive Sciences 16, 231-239, doi:10.1016/j.tics.2012.02.007 (2012).
  • doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.11.014 (2013).
  • Southgate, V. & Hamilton, A. F. D. Unbroken mirrors: challenging a theory of Autism. Trends In Cognitive Sciences 12, 225-229 (2008).
  • Rubenstein, J. L. R. & Merzenich, M. M. Model of autism: increased ratio of excitation/inhibition in key neural systems. Genes Brain Behav. 2, 255-267, doi:10.1046/j.1601-183X.2003.00037.x (2003).

Recent empirical findings

  • Thorup, E., Nystrom, P., Gredeback, G., Bölte, S. & Falck-Ytter, T. Reduced alternating gaze during social interaction in infancy is associated with elevated symptoms of autism in toddlerhood. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. (in press).
  • Falck-Ytter et al. (2018). Reduced orienting to audiovisual synchrony in infancy predicts autism diagnosis at 3 years of age. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry.
  • Piven, J., Elison, J. & Zylka, M. Toward a conceptual framework for early brain and behavior development in autism. Molecular psychiatry 22, 1385 (2017).